FTTN - Fibre to the Node  
  The Cost Effective Solution for Telecom Broadband Infrastructure Deployment  
  Broadband Applications  
  Broadband applications require communication technology offering data traffic speeds above 1 Mbps. Many of the communications applications and services that were available in the year 2000 were designed for narrow-band application speeds (below 56 kbps). These applications included limited graphic web browsing, text based on-line shopping, email and word processor file transfer. Low cost broadband services such as xDSL systems provide a tremendous opportunity for the development of richer, more enhanced applications. These applications require services such as streaming video, rapid image file transfer or high-speed file transfer services.
There are hundreds of applications driving the demand for high speed data transfer services that can be provided via xDSL transmission: distance learning, high graphic on-line commerce, video and audio entertainment, interactive advertising, news and other information services, advanced manufacturing process, media production, remote security, public safety, telemedicine, utility management, advanced communication system and transportation. Much of the demand for broadband data access has come from the Internet. The Internet or World Wide Web (WWW) has had a profound impact on our lives – both on a personal and business basis. The Internet’s global collection of inter-connected computer networks has become the medium of choice for dissemination of knowledge and connectivity for both individuals and corporations. The Internet is transforming the world into an “Information society”. This medium has created an awareness of many new information services, and these new information services are often best delivered via rapid speed data communication services. Customers do not care or need to know how the underlying broadband communication technologies function. They only care that technology works for whatever applications they want to use. Broadband technologies, such as xDSL, merely provide a system that enables applications to fulfill the needs or desires of end-users.
Today, access to the Internet is an integral part of our society in touching business, educators, law enforcement, families, and so on. These consumers are hungry not just for simple applications such as email, but for rich, networked multimedia ones. ADSL utilizes existing infrastructure and allows high-speed digital data and analog voice to be carried simultaneously over a common copper local loop. High speed connectivity is Today, access to the Internet is an integral part of our society in touching business, Service providers are adapting their networks and strategies to meet the demand for high bandwidth services and applications at reduced cost. Some service providers are attempting to capture high bandwidth customers by offering access to key information services providers (e.g. a specific Internet services or digital video provider). The customer’s key interest in high bandwidth service includes speeding up large file transfers, viewing high-resolution images and enabling multimedia application such as streaming audio and video.

All in all, xDSL service gives service providers other business opportunities to extend their business as revenues from IDD and mobile drop rapidly. The twisted pair copper cable under the ground is a big asset for Telecom operators, especially in the last mile of the network. This unique property must be fully utilized. In South Korea as an example, the saturation percentage is around 33% of the fixed-line telephone subscribers – 50 million population, 38 million telephone lines and 13 million broadband users. With a total population in Asia of around 1.9 billion, with, 308 million telephone lines and 12 million xDSL subscribers in 2008, there is huge potential growth to offer advanced services cost-effectively by utilizing the existing copper lines..

  Broadband Deployment  

The most important element of broadband deployment is fiscal. The current market drivers for operators are to increase APRU for existing customers, reduce churn to competitors, maximize return on existing assets and to generate new services. Revenue streams are all under attack and margins are declining.

  • International call rates and margins have plummeted in the last 7 years.
• Local call rates and STD rates have declined dramatically.
• Competition exists in every segment of the market.
  The ability to cross-subsidize residential market expansion through international and business class services has been eroded. Regulators and governments have established an environment of competition and licensing on all revenue streams. Capital spending cannot be funded from annual revenues. In reality telecommunications has had to become a competitive business and is no longer a national unified service. The glory days of monopoly service have gone. Is this a bad thing? In general this has actually lead to an increase in demand because of reduced prices. For operators it has dynamically changed the way they do business. Broadband (ADSL) deployment is the current key driver but in itself is only a stepping stone to the future.
The ITU FSAN (Full Service Access Network) model set out the future build scenario for modern broadband development.
The requirement for operators will be to provide a dynamic, high speed, flexible network with intelligence decentralized. The current model of a five kilometer circle of star deployed copper cross-connection cabinets will not meet future network needs. Short copper loops, to allow high bandwidth, can only be provided when active equipment is deployed in nodes nearer customers. The goal of a fibre to every home is the ideal deployment method but fiscally the cost of individual terminations is not yet feasible.
  U-Solution is the best company to provide and offers the infrastructure of the Mobile Phone tower with the good experiences in the City and country site. On roof tower erection it is performing with highest method and technology at the own manufacturing.  

A ring and star fibre distribution system with active equipment deployed at wireless or copper access point within easy reach of customers gives operators greater flexibility at a better cost of investment. These active equipment points will need to be installed in leased space within existing buildings or in street side active cabinet. Commercially the physical deployment will be governed by the cost and access to these equipment nodes.

Different countries and different legislation will ensure that a commercially viable deployment options in one country, state or city may not be as viable in another.

Normal network planning activity was a well-trodden path that has successfully served the needs of yesterday's network. Today planners need to be a little more radical and try to second -guess the future. This is, of course, not easy and mistakes will be made. Planners have always worked to a known destination and now they have to work to an unknown and a less predictable future.

  Some things are definite  

• Full NGN IP switching will come.
• Customers will demand more bandwidth
• The operator’s need increase their network’s bandwidth capacity may be driven as much by competition as by demand.
• Electronics and signal recovery will get better.
• Copper loops must get shorter.
• Telephone dial tone will not be the only service offered.
• People will want entertainment choices on demand.
• Fibre will be handled more and will need to become more robust at connection points.
• Wireless may replace physical connections in the "last mile".
• QoS demands will increase - losing dial tone is one thing but losing your 300 Channels of TV and High Speed LAN will be a major issue.
• People will still want a bell to ring when they get a call.
• Fixed line operators must go for a triple-player service offering.


In order to shorten the copper local loop, fiber needs to move closer to the subscribers. Currently FTTx architecture has FTTN / C, FTTB. (See diagram 1.)

The deployment of FTTx must be planned strategically. Four main factors must be considered to find the best solution.

  • Bandwidth required users
• The reach of the subscribers
• Current infrastructures resources

It is undeniable that FTTx will ultimately become FTTH. The transition plan and schedule is the key to success.

New builds and upgrading projects will be planned separately. In future, as the PON and VDSL equipment price drops, FTTB (PON) + VDSL2 will be the most economical upgrade model. It has the better advantages for CAPEX and bandwidth improvement.

According to Infonetics statistics, FTTN/C, FTTB are currently the models most used by world-wide carriers. Only certain carrierssuch as NTT of Japan is proactively deploying FTTH for new build projects. Even so, NTT still have 30 percent of their subscribers under the FTTB + VDSL2 model.

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